I had no idea you could do this, but now that I do, but it turns out you can install fonts from the command line using Homebrew. That means I could write a shell script to install automatically most or all of the fonts I use on new Macs.
I could even have the script in Dropbox and have it run periodically in the background using a
launchd service to keep everything in sync. That is useful.
All you need to do is this:
brew tap caskroom/fonts brew cask install font-<name-of-font>
It looks like it has all of the major free programming fonts and a bunch of others too. Neat.